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Comparing the set of images we can see a gradual movement from the numerical representation based on tables to a graphical representation based on geometric primitives the line graph and finally the representation based on a visual map which contains data analysis of the images that were arranged according to the results of the measurements of the objects represented in the set of covers. The information visualisation shows the axis of a representation of geometric primitives into a direct representation of mapped objects that creates the need for a use of special devices usually an array of screens for viewing large image formats.

This necessity is because each element a cover scanned in x pixels occupies a relatively large space if we use a default page size A4 paper or a computer screen. For this reason, the visualisation technology is becoming more popular. By allowing studies that are not restricted to a single display window screen, but that are increasingly promoting the use of a large amount of tiles usually forming an array with more than 4 screens , the systems are significantly improving the visualisation characteristics of the results of research in a large array of academic fields.

The creation of visual representations of information can be arranged into two basic principles: In a reductionist perspective, scientists until now were creating a whole system of representation based in bar graphs, vectors etc. The basis for this reduction, among many reasons, was due to the popularisation of the page format support.

This page format forced an adaptation of visualisation systems for small formats that should be mobile and easily manipulated by the producer or the reader of the data. With the exception of maps and architectural plans, the entire information display system was being built on this reduced page format.

The human need to study complex systems with large amounts of data was supplied by a strategy based on the reduction of the data, which promoted a possibility of representation of basically all the important in a non-complex society components in a small viewing space. In this sense the geometric primitives are taken as a point representing a specific time, and they represent a phenomenon described with a line or curve. Their behavior over time was designed using a plan map related to its development in a certain context.

Currently the computers screens still simulate the page size to establish relations with the printed page, such as A4 and Letter patterns to be viewed in its entirety during the production of written documents or graphics. This brought a stiff design interface for data visualisation in large formats, because the prevailing culture determined the size of the window to be similar of a printed page.

Some fields started pushing for changes. At the cinema, the scientific field of big data computing analysis, all of them need large display formats to study and test their final products. The first available solution was to project the images on screens or flat surfaces, but these attempts only magnified the same relation to the page rather than increasing the space for the construction of a theory of visualisation.

Even enlarged, the screen contains the same amount of information as a page. According to Lev Manovich, the second principle of the visualisation is the use of spatial variables position, shape, size and, more recently, movement to represent major differences in the data and reveal patterns and relationships.

This direct representation helps the researcher understand the meanings and the causes behind the patterns so he can visualise in the image, as well as find additional patterns that arise in the composition of a visual map.

In this work, the discovery of patterns and elements can be shown on the visual analysis of particles that represent the construction of standards in all the covers that were analysed, and the final image shows the covers for the first time visualised in just one large image.

The visual result shows a kind of triangle that brings together the vast majority of the covers. The advances that the computer graphics techniques brought to the Humanities field logically influenced the visual results of this field.

This obviously can be intrinsically linked to a hybridisation of the culture generated by the software in the digital age. Some initial analyses that we performed to demonstrate what we did in our object the entire set of covers of Veja magazine are shown in Figure 3. This shows an analysis of the chromatic characteristics on the set of covers of VEJA. We are trying to identify a pattern in the graphics and also to promote a different kind of view.

In other terms, creating an integral visualisation of the entire collection of more than 40 years of history through covers of a magazine, with the intention to show how advanced techniques of visualisation can change the way that we see historical moments and also to show that from now on we can have at our hands the "entire scenario" of something, or in other words, that in some sense it is much more reliable to have and define a big picture of some fact.

The second part of our research was the analysis of the graphics aspects under a more geographic perspective, trying to move from the very linear analyses that were established in the nineteenth century and that are still around on the academic realm, adding new visual aspects such as themes, gender and ethnic groups.

Usually the results of this kind of analysis will present lines, columns and pie charts. However, what we are trying to show is that by using the data visualisation perspectives it is possible to create a more deep, comprehensive and complex way to visualise history, a system and, why not to say, "cultural algorithms" that can be created and run over big databases, allowing the user to get quantitative data and visualise the semantic questions over the entire set of covers of a magazine, such as this one that we did over the object presented in this analysis.

The deliberative democracy model brings the idea that subjects can share a principle of rationality that would serve to the political decision-making processes, in isolating in a private world their histories, their social, cultural and religious differences, and in believing, therefore, that such idiosyncrasies would have no implications for political agency in the spheres of debate.

In turn, Mouffe , , proposes an alternative to such a framework, which she calls pluralist and radical democracy or agonistic pluralism, in defending that power cannot be removed from public-political deliberation, since it is constitutive of any social relation.

One of the mistakes of deliberative democracy theorists is to postulate the availability of a public sphere in which power would have been eliminated and rational consensus would have been produced. According to Mouffe , p. But if we accept that relations of power are constitutive of the social, then the main question for democratic politics is not how to eliminate power but how to constitute forms of power more compatible with democratic values.

The task here is to assume a sphere of public debate constituted by relations of power, by tensions in order to decide a political order, without ignoring that, with this, there will be exclusion, since to think politics having antagonism as an inescapable condition of its existence always involves to build a we as opposed to they9.

Mouffe , does not deny that consensus can be reached; she just does not agree that this happens without some exclusion. In order to think of consensus or any rational legitimacy, we should not neglect the role of hegemony in the provision of agglutinating discourses in public debate. Any political order decided or accepted in the public sphere is the expression of a hegemony, of a disposition of social relations of power among individuals, and, as such, is subject to rearrangements, to new dispositions, since it is always a discursive construction and therefore contingent and precarious one.

If power and legitimacy converge and act perfectly together, this will entail a hegemonic political order. According to Mouffe, a distinction is necessary to understand some of the complexity of the political field, as well as the relation between power, antagonism and discourse.

Politics, therefore, emerges as an always precarious, contingent, historical attempt to tame the antagonistic dimension of politics.

The error in the work of several political theorists and scientists, according to Mouffe, was to deny and eliminate this antagonistic dimension of politics and to seek a way individuals could participate in a public sphere of debate without treating each other as enemies, wherewith there would inevitably be exclusions, failing to attend to the common good.

Here, the importance of thinking about the role of available discourses in a public sphere of political debate, such as those from media, for example, has been considered. Politics, manifested by means of discourses in processes of collective deliberation, would always be the attempt to create a unity, an order, in a conflictive context, teeming with the differences and interests of the participants.

Contrary to what theorists of deliberative democracy think, it is difficult to reconcile, through dialogue, divergent interests, since they are rather discourses that would sustain the political and social order, each in its own way.

The question for democratic politics lies to construct a they that does not have to be destroyed by the discourse of the we or that is reasonably included in a rational discourse of unity, but that, once having its ideas combated by discourse of we, does not have the right to defend them questioned, by treating them always as legitimate opponents.

For Mouffe, this is the true spirit of tolerance based on liberal-democratic principles: do not require agreement with the ideas we oppose, nor indifference to the points of view we disagree, but rather to treat those who defend them as legitimate opponents.

Thus, democratic politics must face the creation of a vibrant agonistic public sphere of contention in which different hegemonic political discourses can be confronted MOUFFE, Especially when the task of reaching the common good is one of the procedural pillars of the formation of a public sphere of rational deliberation, it is presupposed to leave aside the particular and ethical interests so that the public and moral objectives that benefit all can be reached — conduct that seems to be in the base of impartiality and objectivity.

In short, we could say that an identity of the media as a journalistic press can benefit from such a political context, hegemonized by the apolitical politics of a third way for the politics and reinforced by the growing theoretical interest of rational deliberation. With the theoretical and political support of the possibility of a public sphere of debate based on rational principles to guide deliberation, it would be easier to assume that the use of language by the media here, in the case of this work, by Veja could be more easily considered as informative, and, therefore, that its stance in relation to the reporting, to the representation of events and social actors, in short, in relation to what it says is more committed to the truth.

Martin and Peter R. All of these points are of crucial importance for this work, especially since all contribute to achieving the objectives of this work. In general terms, the ATTITUDE subsystem is related to the field of emotions, especially to our feelings and emotional reactions, our judgments of the behavior of others, and our evaluations of natural or semiotic things or events.

Source: Martin and White , p. These aspects are perfectly in line with the objectives of this work and, therefore, have been sufficient to achieve them effectively. Since such evaluations take place in the relationship that we as evaluators have with others as those evaluated , it can be saidthat the area of JUDGMENT is circumscribed to ethics and morality — to ethics, because, in order to make judgments of this type, we always start from a system of norms or set of principles that allow us to evaluate the way we evaluate; to moral, because, as such judgments are expressed, communicated to someone, we can only do so, publicly, by means of resources that compromise the evaluated person towards the people of their private social life or public law.

According to Martin and White , p. According to the authors, evaluations of this type are essential and critical for the formation and consolidation of social networks of coexistence, such as family, friends, colleagues, etc. For Martin and White , evaluations of this type are more directly related to normative judgments, that is to say, they have to do with the observance of religious or legal precepts as examples.

At the same time, the attitudinal evaluations allow us to regard them as revealing of political and ideological systems or, as Martin and White say, of socially constituted communities of shared beliefs and attitudes associated with their positions that give support to the axiological posture assumed by the journalists of the magazine in their texts, which would make it possible to identify a discourse or, more precisely, an articulatory practice on the one hand to impugn ideological and politically adversarial identities to the magazine and on the other to advocate both the inescapably political position of the latter in relation to adversarial ones, and the projective discourse in their texts.

In addition, the analysis of the meanings constructed in the Engagement subsystem also allows us to see what positions of value are presented and taken for granted for the audience of the text or what ones are problematic, controversial, or even intended to be questioned, resisted or rejected. In spite of the dialogical orientation one has upon discursive interactions, it cannot ignore the presence of categorical or bare assertions.

As Martin and White explain , p. But when one takes the view that verbal communication takes place in a context constituted by various voices and alternative viewpoints, this type of assertion tends to assume another nuance, different from the way it has been seen by the lens of the conditions of truth, such as is generally seen in this type of literature. Thus, the status of this type of assertion can be analyzed as constructing, in its own way, a given arrangement of voices or alternative viewpoints, by not recognizing them openly.

In these cases, we have a communicative context tending to be unilaterally construed by the writer. In the first case, there is an opening for the negotiation of the meanings conveyed in the text of the writer, opening the margin for discord and questioning.

In the second, however, there is the adoption of a monological stand which seeks to produce a character of categorical and absolute truth to what is said, in attempting to erase the impression of relativity or even non-validity of the meanings produced by the writer.

Martin and White , p.

Analysing Big Cultural Data Patterns in 2200 Covers of Veja Magazine

As Vian Jr. DISCLAIM is a term for resources through which some alternative is taken to be rejected or supplanted by another, or to be represented as not pertinent to what is spoken in the text. In this category, one will find those lexicogrammatical realisations by means of which some position of value or alternative proposition is evoked in order to be replaced by another or, therefore, to be considered unsustainable. With deny, one has the move to introduce an alternative position, to recognize it, but after to be rejected, that is, the writer uses other voices to be denied them and then to propose an alternative of his own.

As to the discussion of mechanisms of dialogic contraction, such as deny, Martin and White , p.

In one case, with the use of this feature, the writer may be starting from the assumption that the audience somehow shares or is susceptible to the voices, propositions or values that the denied voice would represent, in construing an audience that need to be convinced or informed of something else about it. In another case, deny can be directed at the audience itself, thus assuming the writer the stand of someone who has sufficient knowledge about the subject under discussion, which would allow him to deny the voices or propositions brought to the text.

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In relation to the second type of dialogic contraction, the PROCLAIM, there are those resources that limit the reach of other voices, rather than directly reject the opposite position. In this case, the way the writer produces his text puts or presupposes both the addressee in a tacit alignment relation and the proposition he advocates in question is taken as given.

Thus, the effectiveness of a sharing of the value or belief promoted by the writer is high, because he bases his proposition on a universally accepted way, thus excluding or strongly compromising any disclaim that may arise.

As Martin and White point out, the emphasis implies the presence of some resistance to the voice that is expressed or to the propositions and values asserted in the text. This strategy, according to Martin and White , p. Lower, we have a Letter to the Reader, published on August 3, , approximately two months after the release of a video by Veja showing a director of the Post Office receiving and explaining the bribe that came to his board The Letter to the Reader is somewhat exemplary as to the depoliticized, objective and impartial posture of Veja magazine.

This is because it is clearly stated alongside who is represented by it, whom it addresses and for what reason. In the Letter to the Reader, we find this universal attitude of the magazine.

This is a strategic form of engaging with the audience. Taking itself as the representative of the nation, Veja is transformed in an agent representative of all; it hides in a homogenization of a we all. Its discourse, therefore, is presented as an articulation and condensation of the interests of Brazilians. Corruption, in this case, appears as a guiding element, as a nodal point that congregates the nation around the discourse of Veja, at least to all those who are against those who do evil to the country.

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In the analyzed texts, corruption plays a preponderant moral role, since it bears the indignation that would manifest itself in society, but with the aid of discourses that not only testifyit, but that rather direct the look, the understanding, the way to envisage social and political reality — in short, with a discourse which supposedly belongs to all.

It is this mission that Veja carries out week after week, since it was released in September During the military dictatorship, when the magazine was born, the control of the power of the press was hampered by censorship, this when it not completely prevented.

Cyberbullying: another main type of bullying? Scand J Psychol. Direct bullying involvement is typically understood to be a continuum with three interconnected groups: a victim-only; b perpetrator-only; and c perpetrator-victim Moreover, indirect bullying involvement has also been analyzed as researchers have sought to understand how bystanders can promote or prevent instances of bullying Individuals whose physical and mental well-being has been disturbed may engage in a variety of coping behaviors Lazarus RS, Folkman S.

Transactional theory and research on emotions and coping.

Eur J Pers. The physiological expression of living in disadvantaged neighborhoods for youth. J Youth Adolesc.

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For example, adolescents involved in bullying can develop healthy coping strategies to reduce stress and anxiety by reaching out to friends for social support Dumont M, Provost MA.

Resilience in adolescents: protective role of social support, coping strategies, self-esteem, and social activities on experience of stress and depression. However, some may instead engage in unhealthy coping behaviors such as substance use e. Given the negative health impacts of substance use Longitudinal changes in white matter integrity among adolescent substance users.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res.

World Health Organization. Adolescents: health risks and solutions However, this research has been primarily carried out in high-income countries, even as surveys indicate bullying might be even more pervasive in low- and middle-income countries In low- and middle-income settings, the higher prevalence of youth violence, lower levels of public awareness, and limited resources to address those problems highlight the importance of understanding bullying involvement and its ramifications in those situations.

There is limited knowledge on bullying in Brazil, a middle-income country home to approximately 34 million adolescents Resultados do universo. Accessed on 10 July Two major studies using nationally representative data have provided somewhat contradictory results. In the first, bullying victimization was positively associated with regular cigarette smoking only Rev Bras Epidemiol.

The second study found that bullying perpetrators were more likely to report alcohol, cigarette, and illicit drug use than were nonperpetrators Associations between the practice of bullying and individual and contextual variables from the aggressors' perspective. J Pediatr Rio J.

However, neither study assessed substance use among those who were both bullying victims and aggressors, nor did they investigate co-use of multiple substances, a behavior that might put adolescents at even higher risk of failing at school A longitudinal study of the association of adolescent polydrug use, alcohol use and high school non-completion. Multiple substance use patterns in adolescents-A multilevel latent class analysis. Drug Alcohol Depend. A framework to examine gateway relations in drug use: an application of latent transition analysis.

J Drug Issues. This study intends to fill this gap in knowledge by using a nationally representative sample to conduct a quantitative analysis of the association between the most common forms of substance use and each type of direct bullying involvement among Brazilian adolescent students. The PeNSE is a triennial, nationwide survey of students attending ninth grade in Brazil equivalent to the ninth grade in the school system in the United States of America.

The PeNSE survey included students sampled from 3 public and private schools. Data collection was conducted using researcher-provided smartphones without survey staff intermediation, and took place between April and September The final response rate was Variable description The independent variable, bullying involvement, captured instances of direct bullying involvement.

Students were asked two questions on this topic. These two questions were combined to generate one categorical variable with four types of bullying involvement: none, victim-only, perpetrator-only, and perpetrator-victim.

The dependent variable, substance use, was based on three survey questions about the number of the past 30 days in which students had used alcohol, cigarettes, or marijuana. Students who replied zero days of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana use were coded as nonusers, and those who replied one or more days were coded as current users.

Substance use was further operationalized as: 1 any substance use yes; no and 2 substance co-use yes; no , which measured whether adolescents had used all three substances. Bullying involvement and substance use may be affected by such other factors as age, sex, race, and perceived loneliness 4, 15, This study included multiple control variables including sex male; female , age six categories: 13 or younger; 14; 15; 16; 17; and 18 or older , geographic region North; Northeast; South; Southeast; and Center-West , and school type public; private.

Lastly, one variable related to students' perception of loneliness was included: frequently felt lonely in the previous 12 months. Loneliness is often a symptom of mental health problems, such as depression Childhood loneliness as a predictor of adolescent depressive symptoms: an 8-year longitudinal study.

Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. The co-occurrence of substance use and bullying behaviors among U. J Adolesc. Loneliness can be also be a risk factor in itself since peer groups can protect adolescents against bullying victimization Dynamics of peer victimization in early adolescence.

J Appl Sch Psychol.This is fundamental to constructing one of our arguments against the implicit claim of the media here analyzed: that its discourses represent a common interest, from the people, from the nation6.

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This would be the reason for many liberal democrats to argue that the emergence of new political identities that do not represent collectivities would ensure the inevitable exchange of old politics and its traditional ideologies and boundaries for universal principles stemming from Law and rational morality. Its discourse, therefore, is presented as an articulation and condensation of the interests of Brazilians.

In turn, Mouffe , , proposes an alternative to such a framework, which she calls pluralist and radical democracy or agonistic pluralism, in defending that power cannot be removed from public-political deliberation, since it is constitutive of any social relation. In that sense, one of the possibilities to improve the quality of the coverage on new drug candidates is to widen the view to other actors and points of view, in addition to the scientists and their institutions.