islamic books in Amharic አማርኛ Ethiopia Amhara. Welcome to islamicbook. The islamicbook is a website that facilitates access to islamic books that are freely. List of Islamic Books in Amharic. Julius Caesar Ancient Rome Islamic books in Amharic Latin Roman Empire Ethiopia . PDF WITH TEXT. 3 days ago Online Library for downloading Islamic books about Fiqh, Hadith, Tafsir, history, religion in languages with Read Online option | Amharic.
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Browse through our collection of authentic Islamic books in Amharic (ኣማርኛ). Our list of Amharic books is growing insha Allah, so do come back soon!. chrisfalgocaput.cf ISLAM Its Foundation And Concepts download pdf book Islam The Religion You can no Longer Ignor download pdf book. Mercy is a fire that is never extinguished in the heart of a Muslim. He has written many books on different aspects of Islam as a religion and as a civilization .
The search for authenticity, purity, and uniqueness has led to the articulation of political policies with Islamic edge at a national, regional and international level. It is, of course, clear that Islam came to play an important and powerful role at multiple levels as millions of people sought to make it a more central part of their lives 2.
Today, the Islamic discourse is influenced by the political, intellectual and cultural circumstances prevailing in the Muslim countries and the economic, social conditions, and mental formations affecting their societies. It seems rather more to the point to consider the internal and historical variations of the Islamic cultural traditions as structured historical units, subject to evolutionary and revolutionary change.
Being an expression of the prevailing conditions, the Islamic discourse swings between strength and weakness, moderation and extremism, ability and feebleness, adequacy and inadequacy, depending on the environment, the society, and the internal to the external circumstances in which it evolves.
There is reason to believe that the reversion to Islamic teachings and ethical ideal is the result of uneven economic development in the post-colonial era. Conditions of inequality, economic oppression, and historical injustice have given rise to passive emotions in many Muslim countries.
Precisely because Muslims were weak militarily and politically they responded to the challenge by seeking refuge in their faith, whereby the discourse of umma community of believers revivalism provided an identity, a purpose, and a wide range of methods for social struggle particularly in the Middle East.
Their anger was expressed in religious language. Hence, the rise and spread of Islamic conservative discourse and Islamic fundamentalism can be traced back to three interacting factors.
The first is the cultural contradiction produced by the rapid access to modernity in most Muslim countries. The second is the crisis of efficiency and legitimacy of the political systems established after independence.
The third is the intense demographic growth without adequate economic development 3. The relative material deprivation has led to feelings of alienation, frustration, and hence, a growing sense of powerlessness.
Against the background of disappointment, bitterness and gloom in this life, fundamentalism became a ray of light, provided emotional fulfilment, and inspired the faithful Muslim with hope in this life and eternal grace in the life to come.
When the question is posed, why, after a variety of experiments in social change over nearly a century, do Muslim societies remain economically underdeveloped, poor, and politically repressive? Muslims, traditionalists and fundamentalists alike, would claim that a return to Islamic heritage would resolve these problems 4.
Its message is pervasive in the sense that covers all aspects of life and society. In fact, the Muslim Brotherhood movement viewed Islam as a total system that transcended national boundaries, believed in the unity of religion and politics, and considered Western culture decadent.
It follows that all the precursors of Islamic fundamentalism insisted on unconditional fealty to Islam and questioned the validity of any sources of learning that were outside the Islamic cosmological doctrine 5. It is obvious that such variation is not about purpose but rather in the methods they used.
While the radical Jihadis with their extremism, revolutionary path, and hateful discourse are willing to do anything to establish an Islamic political order even in non-Muslim societies, the non-violent trend in the Islamic movement is pragmatic, engaged in advocating social transformation and has developed a moderate discourse which illustrates an ambiguous respect of some civil liberties, human rights, and the acceptance of certain democratic elements. In fact several Islamist movements in a number of Islamic countries have sought to advance their political agendas through contesting elections.
Recently, they even have experienced success at the polls, as evidenced by elections in Egypt, Bahrain and Palestine. With Islam as its reference this discourse claims that it is not inherently anti-Western and some of its representatives are keen to build bridges of understanding and communication with people and institutions in the West.
Yet, many observers still question their real commitment to democracy. Initially, it is important to note that the resurgence of political Islam is a counter-process to unhappy encounter with the West and its modernity.
Many Muslims were unable to see, what went wrong? What caused the decay of their past heritage? And what contributed to their marginalization and impotence? The Arabs in particular were unable to concede the disastrous and humiliating defeat in the six-day Arab-Israeli war. Secular Arab nationalism had been proved a failure and was dead. This voice called for tawba the notion of repentance and a return to religion. With the passage of time, a broad acceptance of the fundamentalist message developed throughout the Muslim countries that the reason for the plight of Muslims is that they and their governments had fallen away from the original principles of Islam.
Thus, people were able to realize what they had left behind and remembered what they had forgotten. A return to the straight path of Islam will restore the identity, power, and wealth of the Muslim umma. They believed that Islam as a body of faith has something important to say about how politics and society should be ordered in the contemporary Muslim world. Therefore, Islam forms the ideological and often the cultural and social context for their sophisticated movements of reaction against modernity and its threatening features of contemporary world 7.
Given the diversity of their backgrounds, cultures, and differences in time and space, there are considerable variations in their discourse and orientations. At the same time, understanding the dynamics of the sometimes contradictory discourses on any given issue requires an appreciation of the diversity of the contemporary Islamic experience.
So it can easily be seen how the Islamic fundamentalist movements do not constitute a monolithic phenomenon. Each movement is shown to have been a belated reaction to internal and external forces.
Though they share the common purpose of establishing a new social and political order based on Islam Islamizing society and have similarities in the vocabulary of their discourse, there is an infinite variety of ideological differences.
They differ also on how this goal should be realized. As there are various insights into the Islamic ethical ideal contained in the sacred text, many fundamentalist movements divided along ideological and sometimes sectarian lines. These groups should be considered among the Salafis. Some of them do subscribe to violence and are called Salafi Jihadis 8. Again, while some fundamentalist groups are pluralistic in terms of inter-Muslim relations and relations between Muslims and minorities, others are not 9.
The fact is that some fundamentalist groups, while ideologically radical, might nevertheless be nonviolent in their methods. On the other hand, there are movements that make no distinction between politics and religion, regard Islam as a complete, unchangeable and finished system and are usually associated with authoritarianism Their ideology is based on an assumption that Islam has a predominant political mission. Hence, the ability to practise Islam fully as a religion is dependent upon the ability to create an Islamic political system.
What is particularly noteworthy is that political Islam comes in many strains and certainly not all are marked by an attachment to violence. Some Islamic movements cannot be easily labelled as radical or moderate, because radical and moderate wings can coexist within the same movement.
Furthermore, extremist groups can evolve into moderate ones, and moderate groups can become radicalised The Islamic resistant movement in the Gaza Strip Hamas is a case in point. It is one of the wings of Muslim Brotherhood in Palestine. It is further of interest to note that, Sheikh Yusef al-Qaradawi, the most authoritative Muslim theologian who is associated with the Muslim Brotherhood, while condemning terrorism in Britain; he supports suicide bombings against Israel referring to it as form of Jihad It has often been noticed that, though the growth of several radical Islamic groups occurred outside the context of the Muslim Brothers, the organization of the Muslim Brotherhood remained the mother organization from which the various splinter militant groups sprang Having spent years in jail and endured its brutality, many young Brothers turned radicals.
Among the Muslim Brotherhood members in Egypt, was the prominent thinker and ideologue Sayyid Qutb who was executed in Cairo in He is the author of a number of controversial writings, which had a significant impact on Muslim fundamentalists up to the present day. In this new society, domination hakimiyya should be reverted to God alone. He considered that modern society is a sinful one because it existed in a state of jahiliyya i.
In another book, Qutb described modernity as responsible for stripping humanity of its spirituality and its values and reducing human beings to the level of animals. In order to bring society out of the yoke of this modern jahiliyya and revert to the sole domination of God hakimiyya , it would be necessary to form a vanguard of faithful and dedicated Muslims prepared to undertake Jihad through armed struggle against the existing sinful modern society If the term jahiliyya should refer to the period of ignorance in pre-Islamic Arabia, Qutb has adapted it to the contemporary period to mean a similar state inherent in modernity.
It is, therefore, necessary…. According to Qutb the condition of jahiliyya prevailed in Egypt, where the people were no longer worshipping God but revering Nassir and his regime.
It was, indeed, Qutb who boldly expressed the view that God alone possesses truth and human beings must simply have faith in that fact. Furthermore, he made an assault on the historical evolution of the Islamic experience. In his view, the lessons to be learned from the early Muslims are not to be found in the rules they articulated but in their response to the challenges they encountered.
In order to represent these consonants signs, which denote articulationally close consonants, are modified by adding one or more diacritical dots to the basic sign cf. Wetter Table 2. Besides the signs presented in Table 2. The Amharic consonant is an ejective velar plosive and the Arabic one is a uvular plosive. While both are alveolar plosives, the Amharic is an ejective and the Arabic a pharyngalized consonant.
The most striking feature of this Amharic variety is the lexicon with a high proportion of Arabic loanwords. These loanwords constitute the main difference from the Amharic spoken by Christians in that region,21 i. African languages written in the Arabic script can be found all over the continent from Senegal in the west to Kenya in the east cf.
Ngom , Zhukov The genetic relations can still be seen in some signs like those presented in Table 3. Table 3. The Ethiopic script is a development of the Old South Arabian alphabet and the first language which was written in Ethiopic was G!
Consequently the signs of the script correlate very well with the sounds of this language. Amharic and G!
Nevertheless they do differ to a certain extent in the number and quality of consonants. For this reason some signs of the Ethiopic alphabet had to be modified in order to represent the additional Amharic consonants, or, in other words, the Ethiopic script was adapted to Amharic in the same way as the Arabic writing system had been adapted to Amharic as described above. Table 4 shows the signs of the Ethiopic script which had been modified in order to write consonants that exist in Amharic but not in G!
It is interesting to note that for four out of six consonants modifications had to be made in the Ethiopic as well as in the Arabic script compare Table 1. Table 4. In both cases some signs of the original alphabet had to be modified in order to represent the whole range of Amharic consonants.
But there are further similarities.
As will be shown below, many Arabic loanwords in Muslim Amharic are assimilated 8 phonetically but are still written in the Arabic orthography. A comparable phenomenon can be observed in the daily use of written Amharic in the Ethiopic script. Many words of standard written Amharic have a G!
Some signs in G! Obviously most Amharic speakers who use the Ethiopic script seem to be unaware of the historical origins of the orthography of specific words.
At least this must be the cause for the arbitrary spelling of one and the same word, often in the same text cf. Historically there are further similarities between the two scripts.
Both of them were merely consonantal and developed means of representing the vocalic values of the language. In Arabic small diacritics are added above or below the consonantal signs to indicate short vowel and in Ethiopic every original sign received six additional variations in order to mark the respective vowel. Arabic goes from right to left and Ethiopic vice versa. But the predecessor of Ethiopic, the ancient South Arabian writing system went alternately in both directions bustrophedon in one line from left to right and in the next from right to left.
Before being used for Amharic, both the Ethiopic and the Arabic script were originally used for other languages, i. At first sight the use of the Ethiopic script for Amharic might seem more natural because of the close genetic relationship of G! However, the adaptation of a specific script to a given language is not constrained by genetic- linguistic relations but is influenced by socio-cultural circumstances of the respective society.
The particular examples have been chosen to illustrate some linguistic peculiarities of that variety of Amharic.
As a matter of fact, the content of the examples will not be part of the examination. Arabic loanwords are underlined in the transliteration.
I was able to digitize i. Kane In cases where alif is part of an Arabic loanword it is also represented in the transliteration, cf. Getahun The six examples above contain a number of verbs and nouns of Arabic origin which have been morphologically modified in order to fit into the grammatical system of Amharic.
Arabic verbs There are four verbs in the examples, which are loans from Arabic. In 3 appears that loanword in the position of a direct object and is marked with the Amharic accusative-marker -n. A sort of counter example is the fourth noun in the same example 4.
Notes on phonology and morphology Based on the examples I will present a brief description of the phonological and morphological aspects of the integration of Arabic loanwords into Amharic. For a discussion of the phonetic value of hat vowel see Devens Drewes In addition to the comments on the modification of vowels it is important to note one major difference between the vowel systems of Arabic and Amharic.
While the former differentiates between long and short vowels the later does not. On the other hand Amharic has more vowels than Arabic. So when Arabic words are incorporated into Amharic the differentiation in vowel quantity is raised and replaced by vowel quality.
On the morphological level an obvious modification among the verbs is the gemination i. While the gemination of this consonant is a derivational means in Arabic39, it is an obligatory feature of the basic perfective verb stem in Amharic. It goes without saying that there remains much to say about the rest of the Arabic consonants. Grammatical markers are prefixed and suffixed.
Concluding remarks The major aim of this paper was to draw attention to the existence of an Amharic writing tradition and literature based on the Arabic alphabet. I furthermore attempted to describe the more technical aspects of the adaptation of the Arabic script to the Amharic language.
I also tried to show that this adaptation followed principles similar to the adaptation of the Ethiopic writing system to Amharic. At the end of the paper I described some processes of morphological incorporation of Arabic loanwords into Amharic. Especially the different forms of text, forms of rhyme as well as historical and cultural circumstances should be the subject of further detailed philological and linguistic investigation.
In: Aethiopica Abebe Kifleyesus. Abraham Demoz. In: Ethnological Bulletin 4. Amsalu Aklilu. In: A. Kaye ed. Semitic studies. In honor of Wolf Leslau on the occasion of his eighty-fifth birthday November 14th, Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 74 - Banti, Giorgio.
In: M. Bernadini and N. Tornesello eds. Scritti in Onori di Giovanni M. Bender, Marvin L. Head and Roger Cowley. Language in Ethiopia, Chap. Bowen, J. In: Bender et al. Cerulli, Enrico.
Chambers, J. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Devens, Monica. In: S. Segert and A. Bodroligeti eds. Ethiopian Studies. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. Drewes, A. Classical Arabic in Central Ethiopia.
Amharic - ኣማርኛ
Oosters Genootschap in Nederland, 7: - I am a Muslim. In order to represent these consonants signs, which denote articulationally close consonants, are modified by adding one or more diacritical dots to the basic sign cf.
The Prophet himself instructed his followers who came to the Axumite empire, to respect and protect Axum as well as live in peace with the native Christians. Informants: Garima Taffara and Yussuf Ahmad, cited supra, attested that the Muslim quarter was renamed Addis Alam, but they did not know of the time that the name change was made.
Edinburgh; 5 vols, , vol.
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